License & Copyright

New articles in our journal are distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC-BY license). The Open Access statement is: “This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). See http://ivyspring.com/terms for full terms and conditions.” Authors retain copyright of the article, and grant Ivyspring International Publisher a license to publish, use, reproduce and distribute the article and the material contained therein throughout the world in all languages and in all media (now or hereafter known). This is applicable to articles published after June 10 2019.

For articles published before June 10 2019, the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License was used by default and copyright is with the publisher. Please refer to each individual article's copyright and open access statement.

Permission request

Request to reproduce figures or tables in other publications or journals: There is no need to obtain permission if copyrights of the figures or tables belong to Ivyspring International Publisher. Please acknowledge the original source of publication in our journal with full citation. If the copyrights of the figures or tables belong to other publishers or authors, please contact the original publishers or authors for permissions.

Authors or co-authors: As an author or co-author of the article, you are free to include or reuse any part of the materials in your thesis or other publications that you write, with citation of the original source in our journal. There is no need to obtain permission.

Publication Fee

Our journals are funded by author publication fees. Our fees are clearly stated in every journal's website (in the author info pages), and authors are made fully aware of fees (if any) when making any manuscript submission.

Refund policy

Ivyspring will only refund the publication fee if there is an error on our part resulting in a failure to publish the article in our journal platform. No refund will be given if it is due to a fault of author that the article fails to publish. No refund of any kind will be given once the article has been copyedited or published.

Publication fee will not be refunded if the article is retracted as a result of author's plagiarism or misconduct or other errors.

Publication Ethics

Our journals follow the guidelines as set out in the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) on handling potential conflicts of interest of editors, authors, and reviewers. Submissions from editors or members of the editorial board are assigned to other unrelated editors or editorial board members who will ensure unbiased review and decision. Editors-in-chief or handling editors with the assistance of editorial board have complete responsibilities for the peer-review process, decisions, and selection of articles.

There is a zero-tolerance policy towards plagiarism (including self-plagiarism) in our journals. Manuscripts are screened for plagiarism before or during publication, and if found they are rejected at any stage of processing. Other ethical issues, allegations of research misconduct or complaints are handled very seriously and investigations are carried out by the editors and/or editorial office, followed by actions such as reject, withdraw, or retraction of articles.